This part of ISO/IEC 15944 provides a set of UML class diagrams and conceptual explanations that circumscribe the Open-edi Business Transaction Ontology. It explains the mechanics of a business transaction state machine — the procedural component of an OeBTO — and the (internal) constraint component of OeBTO — its repository for business rules.
This part of ISO/IEC 15944 addresses collaborations among independent trading partners as defined in ISO/IEC 15944-1. This part of ISO/IEC 15944 applies to both binary collaborations (buyer and seller) and mediated collaborations (buyer, seller, third-party). The ontological features described herein propose standards only for the BOV — that is, the business aspects of business transactions as they are defined in ISO/IEC 15944-1.
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the editiNoon cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002, Information technology — Business agreement semantic descriptive techniques — Part 1: Operational aspects of Open-edi for implementation
ISO/IEC 15944-5:2006, Information technology — Business Operational View — Part 5: Identification and referencing of requirements of jurisdictional domains as sources of external constraints
Terms and definitions
Person acting for another Person in a clearly specified capacity in the context of a business transaction
NOTE: Excluded here are agents as “automatons” (or robots, bobots, etc.). In ISO/IEC 14662, “automatons” are recognized and provided for but as part of the Functional Services View (FSV) where they are defined as an “Information Processing Domain (IPD)”.
[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.1)]
characteristic of an object or entity
[ISO/IEC 11179-3:2003 (3.1.3)]
subtype of a business transaction where the Persons include only the buyer and the seller, or alternatively other Persons acting as agents for the buyer and/or seller
series of processes, each having a clearly understood purpose, involving more than one Person, realized through the exchange of recorded information and directed towards some mutually agreed upon goal, extending over a period of time
NOTE Adapted from ISO/IEC 14662:2004 (3.1.2).
occurrence in time that partners to a business transaction wish to monitor or control
NOTE 1: Business events are the workflow tasks that business partners need to accomplish to complete a business transaction among themselves. As business events occur, they cause a business transaction to move through its various phases of planning, identification, negotiation, actualization and post-actualization.
NOTE 2: Occurrences in time can either be internal as mutually agreed to among the parties to a business transaction; and/or, reference some common publicly available and recognized date/time referencing schema (e.g. one based on using ISO 8601 and/or ISO 19135).
business location geographic site where an economic event is deemed to occur with its attendant transfer of an economic resource from one Person to another
Business Operational View – BOV
perspective of business transactions limited to those aspects regarding the making of business decisions and commitments among Persons, which are needed for the description of a business transaction [ISO/IEC 14662:2004 (3.1.3)
business transaction predefined set of activities and/or processes of Persons which is initiated by a Person to accomplish an explicitly shared business goal and terminated upon recognition of one of the agreed conclusions by all the involved Persons although some of the recognition may be implicit
NOTE: Adapted from ISO/IEC 14662:2004 (3.1.4).
business transaction entity
computable representation of any real-world entity that participates, occurs or is materialized during a business transaction
business transaction entity type
abstract specification of a business transaction entity, detailing its recommended characteristics, its recommended methods and its recommended life-cycle states
NOTE: A business transaction entity type will usually specify the types of business events that cause a business transaction entity of this type to proceed through its different states as the business transaction itself progresses through its phases of planning, identification, negotiation, actualization and post-actualization.
Person who aims to get possession of a good, service and/or right through providing an acceptable equivalent value, usually in money, to the Person providing such a good, service and/or right [ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.8)]
business activity space where an economic exchange of valued resources is viewed independently and not from the perspective of any business partner
NOTE: In collaboration space, an individual partner’s view of economic phenomena is de-emphasized. Thus, the use of common business and accounting terms like purchase, sale, cash receipt, cash disbursement, raw materials and finished goods is not allowed because they view resource flows from a participant’s perspective.
making or accepting of a right, obligation, liability or responsibility by a Person that is capable of enforcement in the jurisdiction in which the commitment is made
[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.9)]
rule, explicitly stated, that prescribes, limits, governs or specifies any aspect of a business transaction
NOTE 1: Constraints are specified as rules forming part of components of Open-edi scenarios, i.e. as scenario attributes, roles and/or information bundles.
NOTE 2: For constraints to be registered for implementation in Open-edi, they must have unique and unambiguous identifiers.
NOTE 3: A constraint may be agreed to among parties (condition of contract) and is therefore considered an “internal constraint”. Or a constraint may be imposed on parties (e.g. laws, regulations, etc.) and is therefore considered an “external constraint”.
[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.11)]
association between a Person and an economic resource where the Person has physical control only over the resource or controls access
NOTE: Having custody of a good, service and/or right does not imply and is differentiated from having economic control of the same (e.g. a Person may have economic control of a good even though it is not under its custody).
〈business transaction〉 representations of recorded information that are being prepared or have been prepared in a form suitable for use in a computer system
[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.14)]
defined market model
trade model where the buyer and seller accept the entry terms of a specified market in advance and where that market has an accepted and recognized source for business rules and conventions
NOTE: In a defined market, the phases of a business transaction — planning, identification, negotiation, actualization and post-actualization — are governed by the rules and conventions of the particular defined market.
\association between economic events where one is the legal or economic consideration for the other in an exchange
NOTE: Duality is the conceptual analog of double entry in traditional bookkeeping. For example, a shipment from a partner requires a matching flow in, like a payment, to balance accounts between the parties.
arrangement of reciprocated economic commitments between two partners where the abstract specification of terms of trade is incomplete and not subject to legal enforcement
association between economic commitments and the economic contract that bundles those promises and binds them to the two partners who negotiated them
expectation of one Person to receive a future inflow of economic resources from another Person because of an economic exchange which is currently incomplete
type of commitment by one Person to transfer economic resources to another Person at some specified point in the future
bundling of reciprocated economic commitments between two partners where the abstract specification of the proposed economic exchange is deemed to be complete
association between a Person and an economic resource where the Person either owns the economic resource or is otherwise able to derive economic benefit (utility) from it
occurrence in time wherein ownership of an economic resource is transferred from one Person to another Person
NOTE: Occurrences in time can either be internal as mutually agreed to among the parties to a business transaction; and/or reference some common publicly available and recognized date/time referencing schema (e.g. one based on using ISO 8601 and/or ISO 19135).
economic event type
abstract specification of an economic event where its grouped properties can be designated without attachment to an actual, specific occurrence in time
NOTE: Example of attributes at the type level for events might be expected-duration or standard-pricing-percentage.
type of a business transaction where the goal is an exchange of economic resources between two Persons where both parties derive higher utility after the completed business transaction
NOTE: An economic exchange usually involves two economic events with different types of economic resources flowing in opposite directions. For example, an exchange of cash for a good involves a shipment with a requited payment following.
good, right or service of value, under the control of a Person
economic resource type
abstract specification of an economic resource where its grouped properties can be designated without attachment to an actual, specific economic resource
NOTE: Example attributes at the type level for an economic resource like an automobile might include its designated fuel capacity or its maximum expected range.
abstract specification of a Person for economic purposes where its grouped properties can be designated without attachment to an actual Person
NOTE: An example economic role might be qualified buyer or approved shipper, i.e. from an economic perspective only.
association between an economic commitment and the abstract properties of an economic event, an economic resource, a partner or a business location
concrete or abstract thing that exists, did exist or might exist including associations among these things
EXAMPLE: A person, object, event, idea, process, etc.
NOTE: An entity exists whether data about it are available or not.
[ISO/IEC 2382-17:1999 (17.02.05)]
constraint which takes precedence over internal constraints in a business transaction, i.e. is external to those agreed upon by the parties to a business transaction
NOTE 1: Normally external constraints are created by law, regulation, orders, treaties, conventions or similar instruments.
NOTE 2: Other sources of external constraints are those of a sectorial nature, those which pertain to a particular jurisdiction or mutually agreed to common business conventions (e.g. INCOTERMS, exchanges, etc.).
NOTE 3: External constraints can apply to the nature of the good, service and/or right provided in a business transaction.
NOTE 4: External constraints can demand that a party to a business transaction meet specific requirements of a particular role.
EXAMPLE 1: Only a qualified medical doctor may issue a prescription for a controlled drug.
EXAMPLE 2: Only an accredited share dealer may place transactions on the New York Stock Exchange.
EXAMPLE 3: Hazardous wastes may only be conveyed by a licensed enterprise.
NOTE 5: Where the information bundles (IBs), including their Semantic Components (SCs), of a business transaction are also to form the whole of a business transaction (e.g. for legal or audit purposes), all constraints must be recorded.
EXAMPLE: There may be a legal or audit requirement to maintain the complete set of recorded information pertaining to a business transaction, i.e. as the information bundles exchanged, as a “record”.
NOTE 6: A minimum external constraint applicable to a business transaction often requires one to differentiate whether the Person, i.e. that is a party to a business transaction, is an “individual”, “organization” or “public administration”. For example, privacy rights apply only to a Person as an “individual”.
[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.23)]
association between an economic commitment and an economic event where the event executes the promised resource flow from one Person to another
NOTE: For example, a delivery to a customer would fulfill that customer’s sale order.
association between an economic agreement and the business transaction whose conduct and phases are subject to that economic agreement
Person who is a human being, i.e. a natural person, who acts as a distinct indivisible entity or is considered as such
[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.28)]
information bundle – IB
formal description of the semantics of the information to be exchanged by Open-edi Parties playing roles in an Open-edi scenario
[ISO/IEC 14662:2004 (220.127.116.11)]
constraint which forms part of the commitment(s) mutually agreed to among the parties to a business transaction
NOTE: Internal constraints are self-imposed. They provide a simplified view for modeling and re-use of scenario components of a business transaction for which there are no external constraints or restrictions on the nature of the conduct of a business transaction other than those mutually agreed to by the buyer and seller.
[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.33)]
abstract specification of an economic location where its grouped properties can be designated without attachment to an actual place
NOTE: An example location type might be an accepted shipping facility or approved hospital location.
association between an economic event and an economic claim where the occurrence of the economic event causes the economic claim to come into existence
subtype of a business transaction where a third party mediates between the partners as mutually agreed to by the partners
anything perceivable or conceivable
NOTE: Objects may be material (e.g. an engine, a sheet of paper, a diamond), immaterial (e.g. a conversion ratio, a project plan) or imagined (e.g. a unicorn).
[ISO 1087-1:2000 (3.1.1)]
electronic data interchange among multiple autonomous Persons to accomplish an explicit shared business goal according to Open-edi standards
[ISO/IEC 14662:2004 (3.1.9)]
Open-edi Business Transaction Ontology – OeBTO
formal, rule-based specification and definition of the concepts pertaining to business transactions and scenarios and the relationships that hold among those concepts
Open-edi Party – OeP
Person that participates in Open-edi
NOTE 1: Adapted from ISO/IEC 14662:2004 (3.1.11).
NOTE 2: Often in ISO/IEC 15944 referred to generically as “party” or “parties” for any entity modeled as a Person as playing a role in Open-edi scenarios.
Open-edi scenario – OeS
formal specification of a class of business transactions having the same business goal [ISO/IEC 14662:2004 (3.1.12)]
unique framework of authority within which a person or persons act, or are designated to act, towards some purpose
NOTE: The kinds of organizations covered by this part of ISO/IEC 15944 include the following examples:
- an organization incorporated under law;
- an unincorporated organization or activity providing goods and/or services including:
- social or other non-profit organizations or similar bodies in which ownership or control is vested in a group of individuals,
- sole proprietorships,
- governmental bodies;
- groupings of the above types of organizations where there is a need to identify these in information interchange. [ISO/IEC 6523-1:1998 (3.1)]
- organization part department, service or other entity within an organization, which needs to be identified for information interchange
[ISO/IEC 6523-1:1998 (3.2)]
organization part which has the properties of a Person and thus is able to make commitments on behalf of that organization
NOTE 1: An organization can have one or more organization Persons.
NOTE 2: An organization Person is deemed to represent and act on behalf of the organization and to do so in a specified capacity.
NOTE 3: An organization Person can be a “natural person” such as an employee or officer of the organization.
NOTE 4: An organization Person can be a legal person, i.e. another organization.
[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.46)]
association between an economic event and each of the two Persons participating in the economic event
NOTE; Usually there is a “from” association and a “to” association, depending upon the direction of the flow of the economic resource.
subtype of Person that includes buyer and seller
entity, i.e. a natural or legal person, recognized by law as having legal rights and duties, able to make commitment(s), assume and fulfill resulting obligation(s), and able to be held accountable for its action(s)
NOTE 1: Synonyms for “legal person” include “artificial person”, “body corporate”, etc., depending on the terminology used in competent jurisdictions.
NOTE 2: Person is capitalized to indicate that it is being utilized as formally defined in the standards and to differentiate it from its day-to-day use.
NOTE 3: Minimum and common external constraints applicable to a business transaction often require one to differentiate among three common subtypes of Person, namely “individual”, “organization” and “public administration”. [ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.47)]
series of actions or events taking place in a defined manner leading to the accomplishment of an expected result
[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.53)]
public administration entity
a Person, which is an organization and has the added attribute of being authorized to act on behalf of a regulator
[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.54)]
association between economic commitments where the promise by one partner to execute an economic resource transfer in the future is reciprocated by the other partner promising a requited transfer in the opposite direction
information that is recorded on or in a medium irrespective of form, recording medium or technology utilized, and in a manner allowing for storage and retrieval
NOTE 1: This is a generic definition and is independent of any ontology (e.g. those of “facts” versus “data” versus “information” versus “intelligence” versus “knowledge”, etc.).
NOTE 2: Through the use of the term “information”, all attributes of this term are inherited in this definition.
NOTE 3: This definition covers: any form of recorded information, means of recording, and any medium on which information can be recorded; and all types of recorded information including all data types, instructions or software, databases, etc.
[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.56)]
Person who has the authority to prescribe external constraints which serve as principles, policies or rules governing or prescribing the behavior of Persons involved in a business transaction as well as the provisioning of goods, services and/or rights interchanged
[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.59)]
association between an economic event and an economic resource
NOTE: A common example would be a resource-flow between some inventory and the shipment that caused control of that inventory to flow from one Person to another.
association between Persons where one is responsible for the other or between a Person and an organization Person where that Person is assigned
NOTE Subtypes of Persons include individuals, organizations and public administrations. An “individual” is nondivisible but organizations and public administrations are and as such will assign specific responsibilities to organization Persons (see further 6.2.7 and Figure 17 in ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002).
specification which models an external intended behaviour (as allowed within a scenario) of an Open-edi Party
[ISO/IEC 14662:2004 (18.104.22.168)]
Person who aims to hand over voluntarily or in response to a demand or a request, a good, service and/or right to another Person and in return receives an acceptable equivalent value, usually in money, for the good, service and/or right provided
[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.62)]
Semantic Component – SC
unit of recorded information unambiguously defined in the context of the business goal of the business transaction
NOTE: An SC may be atomic or composed of other SCs.
[ISO/IEC 14662:2004 (22.214.171.124)]
association between a requiting economic event and an economic claim where the occurrence of the event causes the economic claim to expire
association between an economic event and the business location where the transfer of economic resources involved in that event is deemed to have occurred
Person besides the two primarily concerned in a business transaction who is agent of neither and who fulfills a specified role or function as mutually agreed to by the two primary Persons or as a result of external constraints
NOTE: It is understood that more than two Persons can at times be primary parties in a business transaction.
[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.65)]
association between a concrete entity and the abstract specification of its grouped properties
undefined market mode
trade model where participants are not registered in advance and where that market does not have accepted and recognized sources for business rules and conventions
||Business Operational View
||Business Transaction Entity
||Business Transaction Entity Type
||electronic business eXtended Markup Language
||E-Commerce Integration Meta-Framework
||Electronic Data Interchange
||Object Constraint Language
||Open-edi Business Transaction Ontology
||Unified Modeling Language
||Uniform Modeling Methodology
||United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business
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