ISO/IEC 15944-4 – Terms and definitions – 20071101

Scope

This part of ISO/IEC 15944 provides a set of UML class diagrams and conceptual explanations that circumscribe the Open-edi Business Transaction Ontology. It explains the mechanics of a business transaction state machine — the procedural component of an OeBTO — and the (internal) constraint component of OeBTO — its repository for business rules.

This part of ISO/IEC 15944 addresses collaborations among independent trading partners as defined in ISO/IEC 15944-1. This part of ISO/IEC 15944 applies to both binary collaborations (buyer and seller) and mediated collaborations (buyer, seller, third-party). The ontological features described herein propose standards only for the BOV — that is, the business aspects of business transactions as they are defined in ISO/IEC 15944-1.

Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the editiNoon cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002, Information technology — Business agreement semantic descriptive techniques — Part 1: Operational aspects of Open-edi for implementation

ISO/IEC 15944-5:2006, Information technology — Business Operational View — Part 5: Identification and referencing of requirements of jurisdictional domains as sources of external constraints

Terms and definitions

agent

Person acting for another Person in a clearly specified capacity in the context of a business transaction

NOTE: Excluded here are agents as “automatons” (or robots, bobots, etc.). In ISO/IEC 14662, “automatons” are recognized and provided for but as part of the Functional Services View (FSV) where they are defined as an “Information Processing Domain (IPD)”.

[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.1)]

attribute

characteristic of an object or entity

[ISO/IEC 11179-3:2003 (3.1.3)]

bilateral transaction

subtype of a business transaction where the Persons include only the buyer and the seller, or alternatively other Persons acting as agents for the buyer and/or seller

business

series of processes, each having a clearly understood purpose, involving more than one Person, realized through the exchange of recorded information and directed towards some mutually agreed upon goal, extending over a period of time

NOTE          Adapted from ISO/IEC 14662:2004 (3.1.2).

business event

occurrence in time that partners to a business transaction wish to monitor or control

NOTE 1: Business events are the workflow tasks that business partners need to accomplish to complete a business transaction among themselves. As business events occur, they cause a business transaction to move through its various phases of planning, identification, negotiation, actualization and post-actualization.

NOTE 2: Occurrences in time can either be internal as mutually agreed to among the parties to a business transaction; and/or, reference some common publicly available and recognized date/time referencing schema (e.g. one based on using ISO 8601 and/or ISO 19135).

business location geographic site where an economic event is deemed to occur with its attendant transfer of an economic resource from one Person to another

Business Operational View – BOV

perspective of business transactions limited to those aspects regarding the making of business decisions and commitments among Persons, which are needed for the description of a business transaction [ISO/IEC 14662:2004 (3.1.3)

business transaction predefined set of activities and/or processes of Persons which is initiated by a Person to accomplish an explicitly shared business goal and terminated upon recognition of one of the agreed conclusions by all the involved Persons although some of the recognition may be implicit

NOTE: Adapted from ISO/IEC 14662:2004 (3.1.4).

business transaction entity

computable representation of any real-world entity that participates, occurs or is materialized during a business transaction

business transaction entity type

abstract specification of a business transaction entity, detailing its recommended characteristics, its recommended methods and its recommended life-cycle states

NOTE: A business transaction entity type will usually specify the types of business events that cause a business transaction entity of this type to proceed through its different states as the business transaction itself progresses through its phases of planning, identification, negotiation, actualization and post-actualization.

buyer

Person who aims to get possession of a good, service and/or right through providing an acceptable equivalent value, usually in money, to the Person providing such a good, service and/or right [ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.8)]

collaboration space

business activity space where an economic exchange of valued resources is viewed independently and not from the perspective of any business partner

NOTE: In collaboration space, an individual partner’s view of economic phenomena is de-emphasized. Thus, the use of common business and accounting terms like purchase, sale, cash receipt, cash disbursement, raw materials and finished goods is not allowed because they view resource flows from a participant’s perspective.

commitment

making or accepting of a right, obligation, liability or responsibility by a Person that is capable of enforcement in the jurisdiction in which the commitment is made

[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.9)]

constraint

rule, explicitly stated, that prescribes, limits, governs or specifies any aspect of a business transaction

NOTE 1: Constraints are specified as rules forming part of components of Open-edi scenarios, i.e. as scenario attributes, roles and/or information bundles.

NOTE 2: For constraints to be registered for implementation in Open-edi, they must have unique and unambiguous identifiers.

NOTE 3: A constraint may be agreed to among parties (condition of contract) and is therefore considered an “internal constraint”. Or a constraint may be imposed on parties (e.g. laws, regulations, etc.) and is therefore considered an “external constraint”.

[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.11)]

custody

association between a Person and an economic resource where the Person has physical control only over the resource or controls access

NOTE: Having custody of a good, service and/or right does not imply and is differentiated from having economic control of the same (e.g. a Person may have economic control of a good even though it is not under its custody).

data

business transaction〉 representations of recorded information that are being prepared or have been prepared in a form suitable for use in a computer system

[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.14)]

defined market model

trade model where the buyer and seller accept the entry terms of a specified market in advance and where that market has an accepted and recognized source for business rules and conventions

NOTE: In a defined market, the phases of a business transaction — planning, identification, negotiation, actualization and post-actualization — are governed by the rules and conventions of the particular defined market.

duality

\association between economic events where one is the legal or economic consideration for the other in an exchange

NOTE: Duality is the conceptual analog of double entry in traditional bookkeeping. For example, a shipment from a partner requires a matching flow in, like a payment, to balance accounts between the parties.

economic agreement

arrangement of reciprocated economic commitments between two partners where the abstract specification of terms of trade is incomplete and not subject to legal enforcement

economic bundle

association between economic commitments and the economic contract that bundles those promises and binds them to the two partners who negotiated them

economic claim

expectation of one Person to receive a future inflow of economic resources from another Person because of an economic exchange which is currently incomplete

economic commitment

type of commitment by one Person to transfer economic resources to another Person at some specified point in the future

economic contract

bundling of reciprocated economic commitments between two partners where the abstract specification of the proposed economic exchange is deemed to be complete

economic control

association between a Person and an economic resource where the Person either owns the economic resource or is otherwise able to derive economic benefit (utility) from it

economic event

occurrence in time wherein ownership of an economic resource is transferred from one Person to another Person

NOTE: Occurrences in time can either be internal as mutually agreed to among the parties to a business transaction; and/or reference some common publicly available and recognized date/time referencing schema (e.g. one based on using ISO 8601 and/or ISO 19135).

economic event type

abstract specification of an economic event where its grouped properties can be designated without attachment to an actual, specific occurrence in time

NOTE: Example of attributes at the type level for events might be expected-duration or standard-pricing-percentage.

economic exchange

type of a business transaction where the goal is an exchange of economic resources between two Persons where both parties derive higher utility after the completed business transaction

NOTE: An economic exchange usually involves two economic events with different types of economic resources flowing in opposite directions. For example, an exchange of cash for a good involves a shipment with a requited payment following.

economic resource

good, right or service of value, under the control of a Person

economic resource type

abstract specification of an economic resource where its grouped properties can be designated without attachment to an actual, specific economic resource

NOTE: Example attributes at the type level for an economic resource like an automobile might include its designated fuel capacity or its maximum expected range.

economic role

abstract specification of a Person for economic purposes where its grouped properties can be designated without attachment to an actual Person

NOTE: An example economic role might be qualified buyer or approved shipper, i.e. from an economic perspective only.

economic specification

association between an economic commitment and the abstract properties of an economic event, an economic resource, a partner or a business location

entity

concrete or abstract thing that exists, did exist or might exist including associations among these things

EXAMPLE: A person, object, event, idea, process, etc.

NOTE: An entity exists whether data about it are available or not.

[ISO/IEC 2382-17:1999 (17.02.05)]

external constraint

constraint which takes precedence over internal constraints in a business transaction, i.e. is external to those agreed upon by the parties to a business transaction

NOTE 1: Normally external constraints are created by law, regulation, orders, treaties, conventions or similar instruments.

NOTE 2: Other sources of external constraints are those of a sectorial nature, those which pertain to a particular jurisdiction or mutually agreed to common business conventions (e.g. INCOTERMS, exchanges, etc.).

NOTE 3: External constraints can apply to the nature of the good, service and/or right provided in a business transaction.

NOTE 4: External constraints can demand that a party to a business transaction meet specific requirements of a particular role.

EXAMPLE 1: Only a qualified medical doctor may issue a prescription for a controlled drug.

EXAMPLE 2: Only an accredited share dealer may place transactions on the New York Stock Exchange.

EXAMPLE 3: Hazardous wastes may only be conveyed by a licensed enterprise.

NOTE 5: Where the information bundles (IBs), including their Semantic Components (SCs), of a business transaction are also to form the whole of a business transaction (e.g. for legal or audit purposes), all constraints must be recorded.

EXAMPLE: There may be a legal or audit requirement to maintain the complete set of recorded information pertaining to a business transaction, i.e. as the information bundles exchanged, as a “record”.

NOTE 6: A minimum external constraint applicable to a business transaction often requires one to differentiate whether the Person, i.e. that is a party to a business transaction, is an “individual”, “organization” or “public administration”. For example, privacy rights apply only to a Person as an “individual”.

[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.23)]

fulfillment

association between an economic commitment and an economic event where the event executes the promised resource flow from one Person to another

NOTE: For example, a delivery to a customer would fulfill that customer’s sale order.

governed

association between an economic agreement and the business transaction whose conduct and phases are subject to that economic agreement

individual

Person who is a human being, i.e. a natural person, who acts as a distinct indivisible entity or is considered as such

[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.28)]

information bundle – IB

formal description of the semantics of the information to be exchanged by Open-edi Parties playing roles in an Open-edi scenario

[ISO/IEC 14662:2004 (4.1.2.2)]

internal constraint

constraint which forms part of the commitment(s) mutually agreed to among the parties to a business transaction

NOTE: Internal constraints are self-imposed. They provide a simplified view for modeling and re-use of scenario components of a business transaction for which there are no external constraints or restrictions on the nature of the conduct of a business transaction other than those mutually agreed to by the buyer and seller.

[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.33)]

location type

abstract specification of an economic location where its grouped properties can be designated without attachment to an actual place

NOTE: An example location type might be an accepted shipping facility or approved hospital location.

materialized

association between an economic event and an economic claim where the occurrence of the economic event causes the economic claim to come into existence

mediated transaction

subtype of a business transaction where a third party mediates between the partners as mutually agreed to by the partners

object

anything perceivable or conceivable

NOTE: Objects may be material (e.g. an engine, a sheet of paper, a diamond), immaterial (e.g. a conversion ratio, a project plan) or imagined (e.g. a unicorn).

[ISO 1087-1:2000 (3.1.1)]

Open-edi

electronic data interchange among multiple autonomous Persons to accomplish an explicit shared business goal according to Open-edi standards

[ISO/IEC 14662:2004 (3.1.9)]

Open-edi Business Transaction Ontology – OeBTO

formal, rule-based specification and definition of the concepts pertaining to business transactions and scenarios and the relationships that hold among those concepts

Open-edi Party – OeP

Person that participates in Open-edi

NOTE 1: Adapted from ISO/IEC 14662:2004 (3.1.11).

NOTE 2: Often in ISO/IEC 15944 referred to generically as “party” or “parties” for any entity modeled as a Person as playing a role in Open-edi scenarios.

Open-edi scenario – OeS

formal specification of a class of business transactions having the same business goal [ISO/IEC 14662:2004 (3.1.12)]

organization

unique framework of authority within which a person or persons act, or are designated to act, towards some purpose

NOTE: The kinds of organizations covered by this part of ISO/IEC 15944 include the following examples:

  • an organization incorporated under law;
  • an unincorporated organization or activity providing goods and/or services including:
    • partnerships,
    • social or other non-profit organizations or similar bodies in which ownership or control is vested in a group of individuals,
    • sole proprietorships,
    • governmental bodies;
  • groupings of the above types of organizations where there is a need to identify these in information interchange. [ISO/IEC 6523-1:1998 (3.1)]
  • organization part department, service or other entity within an organization, which needs to be identified for information interchange

[ISO/IEC 6523-1:1998 (3.2)]

organization Person

organization part which has the properties of a Person and thus is able to make commitments on behalf of that organization

NOTE 1: An organization can have one or more organization Persons.

NOTE 2: An organization Person is deemed to represent and act on behalf of the organization and to do so in a specified capacity.

NOTE 3: An organization Person can be a “natural person” such as an employee or officer of the organization.

NOTE 4: An organization Person can be a legal person, i.e. another organization.

[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.46)]

participates

association between an economic event and each of the two Persons participating in the economic event

NOTE; Usually there is a “from” association and a “to” association, depending upon the direction of the flow of the economic resource.

partner

subtype of Person that includes buyer and seller

Person

entity, i.e. a natural or legal person, recognized by law as having legal rights and duties, able to make commitment(s), assume and fulfill resulting obligation(s), and able to be held accountable for its action(s)

NOTE 1: Synonyms for “legal person” include “artificial person”, “body corporate”, etc., depending on the terminology used in competent jurisdictions.

NOTE 2: Person is capitalized to indicate that it is being utilized as formally defined in the standards and to differentiate it from its day-to-day use.

NOTE 3: Minimum and common external constraints applicable to a business transaction often require one to differentiate among three common subtypes of Person, namely “individual”, “organization” and “public administration”. [ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.47)]

process

series of actions or events taking place in a defined manner leading to the accomplishment of an expected result

[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.53)]

public administration entity

a Person, which is an organization and has the added attribute of being authorized to act on behalf of a regulator

[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.54)]

reciprocal

association between economic commitments where the promise by one partner to execute an economic resource transfer in the future is reciprocated by the other partner promising a requited transfer in the opposite direction

recorded information

information that is recorded on or in a medium irrespective of form, recording medium or technology utilized, and in a manner allowing for storage and retrieval

NOTE 1: This is a generic definition and is independent of any ontology (e.g. those of “facts” versus “data” versus “information” versus “intelligence” versus “knowledge”, etc.).

NOTE 2: Through the use of the term “information”, all attributes of this term are inherited in this definition.

NOTE 3: This definition covers: any form of recorded information, means of recording, and any medium on which information can be recorded; and all types of recorded information including all data types, instructions or software, databases, etc.

[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.56)]

regulator

Person who has the authority to prescribe external constraints which serve as principles, policies or rules governing or prescribing the behavior of Persons involved in a business transaction as well as the provisioning of goods, services and/or rights interchanged

[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.59)]

resource-flow

association between an economic event and an economic resource

NOTE: A common example would be a resource-flow between some inventory and the shipment that caused control of that inventory to flow from one Person to another.

responsibility

association between Persons where one is responsible for the other or between a Person and an organization Person where that Person is assigned

NOTE Subtypes of Persons include individuals, organizations and public administrations. An “individual” is nondivisible but organizations and public administrations are and as such will assign specific responsibilities to organization Persons (see further 6.2.7 and Figure 17 in ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002).

role

specification which models an external intended behaviour (as allowed within a scenario) of an Open-edi Party

[ISO/IEC 14662:2004 (4.1.2.1)]  

seller

Person who aims to hand over voluntarily or in response to a demand or a request, a good, service and/or right to another Person and in return receives an acceptable equivalent value, usually in money, for the good, service and/or right provided

[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.62)]

Semantic Component – SC

unit of recorded information unambiguously defined in the context of the business goal of the business transaction

NOTE: An SC may be atomic or composed of other SCs.

[ISO/IEC 14662:2004 (4.1.2.2)]

settlement

association between a requiting economic event and an economic claim where the occurrence of the event causes the economic claim to expire

site

association between an economic event and the business location where the transfer of economic resources involved in that event is deemed to have occurred

third party

Person besides the two primarily concerned in a business transaction who is agent of neither and who fulfills a specified role or function as mutually agreed to by the two primary Persons or as a result of external constraints

NOTE: It is understood that more than two Persons can at times be primary parties in a business transaction.

[ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002 (3.65)]

typification

association between a concrete entity and the abstract specification of its grouped properties

undefined market mode

trade model where participants are not registered in advance and where that market does not have accepted and recognized sources for business rules and conventions

Abbreviated terms

BOV Business Operational View
BTE Business Transaction Entity
BTET Business Transaction Entity Type
ebXML electronic business eXtended Markup Language
ECIMF E-Commerce Integration Meta-Framework
EDI Electronic Data Interchange
IB Information Bundle
OCL Object Constraint Language
OeBTO Open-edi Business Transaction Ontology
OeP Open-edi Party
OeS Open-edi Scenario
REA Resource-Event-Agent
SC Semantic Component
UML Unified Modeling Language
UMM Uniform Modeling Methodology
UN United Nations
UN/CEFACT United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business

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